Causes, Treatment, Diagnosis & More

Hematuria, which is the medical term for blood in your urine, is also known as Hematuria.

Hematuria can be caused by a variety of diseases and conditions. These include infections, kidney disease, cancer, rare blood disorders, and rare diseases. The blood may be visible or in such small quantities that it can’t be seen with the naked eye.

Even if the urine is not stained, any blood in the urine could indicate a serious health problem. Hematuria is something you should not ignore. It can lead to serious conditions such as cancer and kidney disease.

Your doctor can examine your urine and order imaging tests to determine what is causing the hematuria. Then, he will create a treatment plan.

There are two types of hematuria, microscopic and gross.

Gross hematuria

If there’s enough blood in your urine that your urine appears pink or red or has spots of visible blood, you have “gross hematuria.”

Microscopic hematuria

When you can’t see the blood because the amount is so small, you have “microscopic hematuria.” Only a lab test that detects blood or looking at a sample of urine under a microscope can confirm microscopic hematuria.

Hematuria can be caused by many things. Sometimes the blood may come from a different source.

Blood can appear to be in the urine when it’s really coming from the vagina in women, the ejaculate in men, or from a bowel movement in either men or women. There are many possible causes for blood in your urine if it is true.


Hematuria is most commonly caused by infection. It could be in your bladder, urinary tract, or kidneys.

Infection occurs when bacteria travels up the urinary tube, which carries urine out from the bladder. The infection can spread to the bladder and into the kidneys. It can cause pain and the need to urinate often. There could be microscopic or gross hemorhaging.


Another reason blood can build up in your urine is the presence or absence of stones in your bladder or kidneys. These crystals are formed from minerals in your urine. They can form in your bladder or kidneys.

Large stones can cause blockages that can lead to hematuria, severe pain, and even hematuria.

Increased prostate

A enlarged prostate is a common cause for hematuria in men aged between 50 and 60. This gland is located just below the bladder and close to the urethra.

The urethra is compressed when the prostate becomes larger, which happens often in middle-aged men. This can cause problems with urinating, and may stop the bladder from emptying completely. This can lead to a UTI (urinary tract infection) with blood in your urine.

Kidney disease

Kidney disease is another reason urine can contain blood. Hematuria can be caused by a diseased or inflamed renal. This can be a separate condition or part of another illness, such as diabetes.

Hematuria can occur in children aged 6-10 years. This disorder can develop within one to two week of an untreated streptococcal infection. Once common, it’s rare today because antibiotics can quickly treat strep infections.


Blood in the urine can result from cancer of the bladder or kidneys. This is a sign that can be seen in advanced cases of cancer. This may not be a sign of a larger problem.


Hematuria can be caused by certain medications. These include:

Less common causes

There are a few other causes of hematuria that aren’t very common. Blood in the urine can be caused by rare blood disorders like sickle cell anemia, Alport Syndrome, and hemophilia.

Strenuous exercise, or a blow in the kidneys, can also cause blood to appear in the urine.

If you’re seeing your doctor for hematuria, they’ll ask you about the amount of blood and when you see it during urination. They’ll want to know how often you urinate, any pain you’re experiencing, if you see blood clots, and what medications you’re taking.

The doctor will then perform a physical exam and take a sample from your urine to test. If there is an infection, the doctor will analyze your urine to confirm the presence of blood.

Your doctor might order imaging tests such a CT scan. This uses radioactive radiation to create an image.

Cystoscopy may be another possible test your doctor may recommend. This involves using a small tube that sends a camera up your bladder and into your bladder. The camera allows your doctor to inspect the inside of your bladder, urethra, and bladder to determine the reason for your hematuria.

Some causes of blood in your urine can be serious so you should seek medical attention immediately. You shouldn’t ignore even a small amount of blood in your urine.

Also see your healthcare provider if you don’t see blood in your urine but experience frequent, difficult, or painful urination, abdominal pain, or kidney pain. These could all be signs of microscopic hemoturia.

Seek emergency help if you can’t urinate, see blood clots when you urinate, or have blood in your urine along with one or more of the following:

  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • Fièvre
  • Chills
  • Pain in your stomach, back, or side

The reason for your hematuria determines the type of treatment that you will receive.

If you have hematuria due to an infection such as a UTI your healthcare provider will prescribe antibiotics in order to kill the bacteria.

If left untreated, hemorhagia can cause severe pain. Stones can be cleared with prescription medications and other treatments.

To break down the stones, your healthcare provider might recommend extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL).

ESWL is a sound wave technique that breaks down kidney stones into smaller pieces that can be passed through your urine. The procedure is usually completed in about an hour, and may be performed under light or general anesthesia.

Your healthcare provider might also use a scope in order to remove kidney stones. They will use a thin tube called the ureteroscope to access your bladder and ureter. The scope has a camera that can locate the stones.

Your healthcare provider may use special tools to capture the stones and then remove them. If the stones are very large, they will need to be broken up before being removed.

Your healthcare provider might prescribe medication to treat hematuria caused by an enlarged prostate. Surgery may be an option in certain cases.

Blood in the urine can be serious. If you notice this, you should speak to your healthcare provider immediately.

If the symptom is caused by cancer, it is important to not ignore it. It can lead to further growth of the tumors and make treatment more difficult. Untreated infections can lead to kidney disease.

If the cause is an enlarged or swollen prostate, treatment may be able to reduce symptoms. It is important to address it immediately as it can cause discomfort such as frequent urination, severe pain, or even cancer.

Hematuria prevention means preventing the underlying causes.

  • Drink plenty of water, urinate promptly after sexual intercourse and practice good hygiene to prevent infections.
  • Drink plenty of water to prevent stones. Avoid excess salt and certain foods such as spinach and rhubarb.
  • To prevent bladder cancer, you should quit smoking and limit your exposure to chemicals. Drink plenty of water.

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